Symptoms and Causes of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refers to any of a group of conditions that is associated with joint inflammation first occurring before the person is 16 years of age. Several types are known, classified by: Their signs and symptoms Number of affected joints Laboratory results Family history Causes Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is an autoimmune condition. T he synovial membrane that lines […]

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Toxic Shock Syndrome Pathogenesis

Toxic shock syndrome is caused by infection with the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. The exotoxins produced by the bacteria cause the individual to experience the characteristic symptoms of the syndrome, such as shock and fever. Bacterial Infection The initial stage of the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome involves the colonization of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. It is not clearly understood how […]

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Asperger Syndrome Treatment

There is at present no cure and no specific treatment for Asperger syndrome. However, early detection and intervention may help children with the condition to develop into adults who can live a relatively independent life. These children may have more opportunity of reaching their full potential. Therapies and management include:- communication based interventions behavioural therapy dietary and lifestyle changes General […]

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What is the Urea Cycle?

In humans and mammals, almost 80% of the nitrogen excreted is in the form of urea, which is produced through a series of reactions occurring in the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix of liver cells. These reactions are collectively called the urea cycle or the Krebs-Henseleit cycle. Ammonia is a toxic product of nitrogen metabolism which should be removed from our […]

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Types of Autologous (Flap) Breast Reconstruction

Autologous breast reconstruction techniques are classified into different types based on the composition of flaps and the source of the tissue. Flaps from the Abdomen TRAM Flap TRAM refers to the transverse rectus abdominis muscle that extends between the waist and the pubic bone. In the TRAM flap method, a flap of tissue containing skin, fat, and the rectus abdominus […]

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Diastolic Dysfunction Pathophysiology

Diastolic dysfunction refers to a mechanical failure of the heart’s chambers to fill properly with blood during the diastole phase of the cardiac cycle. This is caused by inadequate relaxation of the ventricles during diastole. Phases of the cardiac cycle There are two phases in a heartbeat or a cardiac cycle. During the systole phase, the heart muscles squeeze to […]

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What is Infliximab (Remicade)?

Infliximab is part of a class of drugs called biologics. It acts as an immunosuppressant drug, and is commonly used to treat autoimmune diseases like: Ankylosing spondylitis Crohn’s disease Rheumatoid arthritis Ulcerative colitis Psoriasis Psoriatic arthritis Infliximab inhibits a chemical called tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. This chemical is responsible for triggering inflammation at various sites in the body. It is […]

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Future Pandemics

Pandemics are infectious diseases that spread uncontrollably across populations, killing people over vast areas such as continents and even worldwide. Examples of recent pandemics include influenza and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some examples of potential pandemics in the future are described below. Viral hemorrhagic fevers – Fevers such as Rift Valley fever, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Bolivian hemorrhagic fever […]

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What is Coronary Heart Disease?

Coronary heart disease is a pandemic that has seen a major increase in incidence over the past decade. There are many risk factors that contribute to the formation of coronary heart disease, some of which are recently being exhibited more by the general population. Image Credit: Crevis / Shutterstock What is Coronary Heart Disease? Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a […]

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